5 September 2019 - Does it matter where you place your shipborne radiometer when you do FRM observations of SST? Yes it does!  

Measurements made by a thermal camera mounted on a drone by the DMI group during a cruise revealed that it does indeed make a large difference whether the radiometer measures on disturbed water or waters not affected by the ships wake. The figures below show the radiometric temperature fields as observed from two locations onboard the ship. Figure 1 is taken from the front of the ship where the DMI ISAR is mounted and shows a small spatial variation within the field of view.

Figure 1: thermal readings of the water taken by the drone at the front of the ship 

Figure 2 is taken from the starboard side of the ship and shows how the observed temperature varies significantly throught the field of view. The variation is mainly due to different emissivities for the foam and calm waters. 

Figure 2: thermal readings of the water taken by the drone at starboard

Such investigations are very helpful to ensure the quality and traceability of the SST FRM observations taken within the FRM4SST project, which are used to validate satellite SST products to FRM standards. 


31 July 2019 -  Our DMI experts have been using drone technology to observe the spatial SST field around the M/S Norrona. For more information follow our DMI lead scientist at  


30 June 2019 - Our shipborne radiometers have continued on their deployments on the Pont Aven, M/S Norrona and the Queen Mary 2. Visit our deployments page for links to the current location of the instruments. A photograph of the SISTeR instrument mounted on the Queen Mary 2 is shown below. 


1 May 2019 - The next stage of the ships4sst project, the ESA-funded FRM4SST contract beings today,with the aim of continuing the ISAR and SISTeR deployments, validating satellite SST data from SLSTR and other instruments and furthering the ISFRN development. 


31 March 2019 - Today marks the end of the first Ships4sst contract and we look forward to the next phase of the ESA-funded contract starting in May. For now, here is a world map showing the SST radiometer data gathered by our colleagues and currently stored in our archives (accessible via this website). Further information can be found in our Final Report

Figure caption: The ships4sst data archive L2R files plotted as SST on the world map


28 February 2019 - The ISFRN workshop finished today with a number of successful presentations from prominent scientists within the SST radiometer community and a group discussion in which strategies for taking the ISFRN forward were discussed. Presentations can be found on the documents page and more information on the workshop can be found on the workshop page. 


20 September 2018 - Details for the upcoming ISFRN Workshop have been posted online at


5 April 2018 - A new contract, "Copernicus SLSTR SST Validation using Fiducial Reference Measurements" (aka "ships4sst") has kicked off today. This is an ESA contract with the University of Southampton, RAL Space, DMI and Space ConneXions, which is designed to continue the skin SST measurements from ISAR and SISTeR that were previously funded by BEIS and its predecessor departments since 2004. The new project falls under the EU Copernicus programme and as intended to support the tying together, to a common internationally recognised reference standard, of climate quality SST measurements from AATSR and SLSTR so that the long-term SST time series started by the ATSR sensors may be continued by SLSTR. The ships4sst contract will continue until 31 March 2019, when the UK's role in the Copernicus programme following Brexit is expected to be clarified.